Republicans who voted against the Dream Act represent over 600,000 people who would have benefited

GOP lawmakers believe a bill protecting undocumented youth would invite anarchy and encourage caravans.

UNITED STATES - MAY 21: House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy, R-Calif., speaks during the House Republicans leadership press conference in the Capitol on Tuesday, May 21, 2019. (Photo By Bill Clark/CQ Roll Call)
UNITED STATES - MAY 21: House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy, R-Calif., speaks during the House Republicans leadership press conference in the Capitol on Tuesday, May 21, 2019. (Photo By Bill Clark/CQ Roll Call)

The House of Representatives passed a historic bill Tuesday night that would offer a path to citizenship for more than 2.5 million young undocumented immigrants, known as “Dreamers,” and immigrants protected under temporary programs.

The vote on the American Dream and Promise Act was mostly along party lines, and 187 Republicans voted against the legislation. These 187 Republicans represent approximately 603,500 immigrants who would have benefited from the bill.

The Dream and Promise Act marks the first step toward repairing the damage done to undocumented immigrant communities living in the United States. Under the bill, undocumented immigrants who were under the age of 18 upon arrival in the United States would be granted conditional permanent resident status for 10 years and cancel any removal proceedings so long as they: have been continuously physically present in the United States for four years preceding the date of the enactment of the bill, were 17 years or younger when they first arrived in United States, pass a background check, have a clean criminal record, and graduate from high school or an academic equivalent.

In order to obtain lawful permanent resident status, Dreamers must graduate from a U.S. college or technical school, complete two years of military service, or be employed for at least three years with 75% of that time under an authorized work visa.


The bill would also provide beneficiaries of Temporary Protected Status (TPS) and Deferred Enforced Departure (DED) with lawful permanent resident status if they have been in the United States for three years before the bill is enacted and either had or were eligible for TPS on September 25, 2016 or had DED status as of September 28, 2016. TPS and DED are temporary immigration programs that provide relief to immigrants from countries devastated by natural disasters, civil war, or disease.

Trump has sought to end Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) — an Obama-era program that provided certain undocumented youth temporary work authorization and deportation relief — as well as TPS and DED, leaving the lives of millions of U.S. residents at the whims of court injunctions. Forced to comply with federal court orders, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) extended TPS for residents from El Salvador, Haiti, Sudan, Honduras, and Nicaragua until January 2020 and March 2020 for Nepalese immigrants.

The immigrants who stand to benefit from the latest DREAM Act and their households contribute $17.4 billion in federal taxes and $9.7 billion in state and local taxes per year. They hold also $75.4 billion in spending power.

The University of Southern California’s Center for the Study of Immigrant Integration, in collaboration with the Center For American Progress, published district-level data for how many Dreamers, TPS, and DED holders would be put on a path to citizenship under the Dream and Promise Act. (Editor’s Note: ThinkProgress is an editorially independent newsroom housed within the Center for American Progress Action Fund.)

Here are how many eligible Dreamers, TPS, and DED holders live in districts where Republicans voted against putting them on a path to citizenship:


  • Rep. Bradley Byrne (R) AL-01: 1,200
  • Rep. Martha Moby (R) AL-02: 1,000
  • Rep. Mike Rodgers (R) AL-03: 1,200
  • Rep. Robert D. Aderholt (R) AL-04: 2,000
  • Rep. Mo Brooks (R) AL-05: 2,000
  • Rep. Gary Plamer (R) AL-06: 1,700


  • Rep. Don Young (R) AK- At Large: 1,800


  • Rep. Paul Gosar (R) AZ-04: 3,800
  • Rep. Andy Biggs (R) AZ-05: 3,900
  • Rep. David Schweikert (R) AZ-06: 6,000
  • Rep. Debbie Lesko (R) AZ-08: 3,600


  • Rep. Rick Crawford (R) AR-01: 1,000
  • Rep. J. French Hill (R) AR-02: 1,700
  • Rep. Steve Womack (R) AR-03: 8,400
  • Rep. Bruce Westerman (R) AR-04: 2,000


  • Rep. Doug LaMalfa (R) CA-01: 3,100
  • Rep. Tom McClintock (R) CA-04: 4,000
  • Rep. Paul Cook (R) CA-08: 6,600
  • Rep. Devin Nunes (R) CA-22: 10,600
  • Rep. Kevin McCarthy (R) CA-23: 10,100
  • Rep. Ken Calvert CA-42 (R): 8,200
  • Rep. Duncan D. Hunter (R) CA-50: 9,500


  • Rep. Scott R. Tipton (R) CO-03: 4,400
  • Rep. Ken Buck (R) CO-04: 5,000
  • Rep. Doug Lamborn (R) CO-05: 2,900


  • Rep. Matt Gaetz (R) FL-01: 1,100
  • Rep. Neal P. Dunn (R) FL-02: 2,300
  • Rep. Ted S. Yoho (R) FL-03: 1,900
  • Rep. John H. Rutherford (R) FL-04: 2,400
  • Rep. Michael Waltz (R) FL-06:  2,100
  • Rep. Bill Posey (R) FL-08: 2,200
  • Rep. Daniel Webster (R) FL-11: 1,300
  • Rep. Gus M. Bilirakis (R) FL-12: 1,800
  • Rep. Ross Spano (R) FL-15: 4,800
  • Rep. Vern Buchanan (R) FL-16: 5,900
  • Rep. W. Gregory Steube (R) FL-17: 5,100
  • Rep. Brian J. Mast (R) FL-18: 8,000
  • Rep. Francis Rooney (R) FL-19: 7,300


  • Rep. Earl L. “Buddy” Carter (R) GA-01: 2,300
  • Rep. A. Drew Ferguson (R) GA-03: 1,700
  • Rep. Rob Woodall (R) GA-07: 14,600
  • Rep. Austin Scott (R) GA-08: 1,800
  • Rep. Doug Collins (R) GA-09: 8,000
  • Rep. Jody B. Hice (R) GA-10: 3,800
  • Rep. Barry Loudermilk (R) GA-11: 8,500
  • Rep. Rick W. Allen (R) GA-12: 1,300
  • Rep.Tom Graves (R) GA-14: 3,700


  • Rep. Russ Fulcher (R) ID-01: 2,900
  • Rep. Michael K. Simpson (R) ID-02: 5,200


  • Rep. Mike Bost (R) IL-12: 800
  • Rep. Rodney Davis (R) IL-13: 1,700
  • Rep. John Shimkus (R) IL-15: 600
  • Rep. Adam Kinzinger (R) IL-16: 1,900
  • Rep. Darin LaHood (R) IL-18: N/A


  • Rep. Jackie Walorski (R) IN-02: 3,800
  • Rep. Jim Banks (R) IN-03: 2,400
  • Rep. James R. Baird (R) IN-04: 2,200
  • Rep. Susan W. Brooks (R) IN-05: 2,100
  • Rep. Greg Pence (R) IN-06: 1,200
  • Rep. Larry Bucshon (R) IN-08: 700
  • Rep. Trey Hollingsworth (R) IN-09: 1,600


  • Representative: Steve King (R) 1,400


  • Rep. Roger W. Marshall (R) KS-01: 4,300
  • Rep. Steven C. Watkins, Jr. (R) KS-02: 1,200
  • Rep. Ron Estes (R) KS-04: 3,700


  • Rep. James Comer (R) KY-01: 700
  • Rep. Brett Guthrie (R) KY-02: 1,800
  • Rep. Thomas Massie (R) KY-04: 900
  • Rep. Harold Rogers (R) KY-05: 600
  • Rep. Andy Barr (R) KY-06: 2,700


  • Rep. Steve Scalise (R) LA-01: 3,700
  • Rep. Clay Higgins (R) LA-03: 1,300
  • Rep. Mike Johnson (R) LA-04: 900
  • Rep. Ralph Lee Abraham (R) LA-05: 900
  • Rep. Garret Graves (R) LA-06: 1,400


  • Rep. Andy Harris (R) MD-01: 3,100


  • Rep. Jack Bergman (R) MI-01: N/A
  • Rep. Bill Huizenga (R) MI-02: 1,300
  • Rep. Justin Amash (R) MI-03: 2,700
  • Rep. John R. Moolenaar (R) MI-04: N/A
  • Rep. Tim Walberg (R) MI-07: 900
  • Rep. Paul Mitchell (R) MI-10: 700


  • Rep. Jim Hagedorn (R) MN-01: 1,600
  • Rep. Tom Emmer (R) MN-06: 1,300
  • Rep. Pete Stauber (R) MN-08: N/A


  • Rep. Trent Kelly (R) MS-01: 1,100
  • Rep. Michael Guest (R) MS-03: 700
  • Rep. Steven M. Palazzo (R) MS-04: 1,400


  • Rep. Ann Wagner (R) MO-02: 1,600
  • Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer (R) MO-03: 900
  • Rep. Vicky Hartzler (R) MO-04: 700
  • Rep. Sam Graves (R) MO-06: 600
  • Rep. Billy Long (R) MO-07:  2,000
  • Rep. Jason Smith (R) MO-08: N/A


  • Rep. Greg Gianforte (R) MT-At Large: NA


  • Rep. Jeff Fortenberry (R) NE-01: 2,900
  • Rep. Adrian Smith (R) NE-03: 2,000


  • Rep. Mark E. Amodei (R) NV-02: 7,800

New York

  • Rep. Lee M. Zeldin (R) NY-01: 5,700
  • Rep. Peter T. King (R) NY-02: 15,400
  • Rep. Elise M. Stefanik (R) NY-21: N/A
  • Rep. Tom Reed (R) NY-23: 1,000
  • Rep. John Katko (R) NY-24: 1,200
  • Rep. Chris Collins (R) NY-27: 800

North Carolina

  • Rep. George Holding (R) NC-02: 4,900
  • Rep. Walter B. Jones (R) NC-03: 2,300
  • Rep. Virginia Foxx (R) NC-05: 5,400
  • Rep. Mark Walker (R) NC-06: 5,500
  • Rep. David Rouzer (R) NC-07: 4,900
  • Rep. Richard Hudson (R) NC-08: 3,700
  • Rep. Patrick T. McHenry (R) NC-10: 3,200
  • Rep. Mark Meadows (R) NC-11: 3,100
  • Rep. Ted Budd (R) NC-13: 4,700

North Dakota

  • Representative: Kelly Armstrong (R) ND-At Large: 1,200


  • Rep. Steve Chabot (R) OH-01: 1,300
  • Rep. Brad R. Wenstrup (R) OH-02: 900
  • Rep. Jim Jordan (R) OH-04: N/A
  • Rep. Robert E. Latta (R) OH-05: N/A
  • Rep. Bill Johnson (R) OH-06: N/A
  • Rep. Bob Gibbs (R) OH-07: NA
  • Rep. Warren Davidson (R) OH-08: 1,400
  • Rep. Michael R. Turner (R) OH-10: N/A
  • Rep. Troy Balderson (R) OH-12: 1,300
  • Rep. David P. Joyce (R) OH-14: 900
  • Rep. Steve Stivers (R) OH-15: 1,500
  • Rep. Anthony Gonzalez (R) OH-16: 500


  • Rep. Kevin Hern (R) OK-01: 5,300
  • Rep. Markwayne Mullin (R) OK-02: 1,200
  • Rep. Frank D. Lucas (R) OK-03: 2,800
  • Rep. Tom Cole (R) OK-04: 2,200


  • Rep. Greg Walden (R) OR-02: 3,300


  • Rep. Daniel Meuser (R) PA-09: 600
  • Rep. Scott Perry (R) PA-10: 1,000
  • Rep. Lloyd Smucker (R) PA-11: 600
  • Rep. Tom Marino (R) PA-12: 1,000
  • Rep. John Joyce (R) PA-13: 900
  • Rep. Guy Reschenthaler (R) PA-14: N/A
  • Rep. Glenn Thompson (R) PA-15: N/A
  • Rep. Mike Kelly (R) PA-16: N/A

South Carolina

  • Rep. Joe Wilson (R) SC-02: 1,800
  • Rep. Jeff Duncan (R) SC-03: 2,100
  • Rep. William R. IV Timmons (R) SC-04: 3,300
  • Rep. Ralph Norman (R) SC-05: 1,200
  • Rep. Tom Rice (R) SC-07: 2,100

South Dakota

  • Rep. Dusty Johnson (R) SD-At Large: 1,200


  • Rep. David P. Roe (R) TN-01: 1,700
  • Rep. Tim Burchett (R) TN-02:  2,300
  • Rep. Charles J. “Chuck” Fleischmann (R) TN-03: 2,000
  • Rep. Scott DesJarlais (R) TN-04: 3,000
  • Rep. John W. Rose (R) TN-06: 1,400
  • Rep. Mark E. Green (R) TN-07: 1,200
  • Rep. David Kustoff (R) TN-08: 1,900


  • Rep. Louie Gohmert (R) TX-01: 6,600
  • Rep. Dan Crenshaw (R) TX-02: 13,600
  • Rep. Van Taylor (R) TX-03: 8,100
  • Rep. John Ratcliffe (R) TX-04: 4,800
  • Rep. Lance Gooden (R) TX-05: 10,500
  • Rep. Ron Wright (R) TX-06: 7,400
  • Rep. Kevin Brady (R) TX-08: 9,400
  • Rep. Michael T. McCaul (R) TX-10: 8,800
  • Rep. K. Michael Conaway (R) TX-11: 4,500
  • Rep. Kay Granger (R) TX-12: 7,100
  • Rep. Mac Thornberry (R) TX-13: 6,400
  • Rep. Randy K. Weber (R) TX-14: 6,300
  • Rep. Bill Flores (R) TX-17: 8,800
  • Rep. Jodey C. Arrington (R) TX-19: 4,700
  • Rep. Chip Roy (R) TX-21: 6,200
  • Rep. Pete Olson (R) TX-22: 9,600
  • Rep. Kenny Marchant (R) TX-24: 14,300
  • Rep. Roger Williams (R) TX-25: 6,200
  • Rep. Michael C. Burgess (R) TX-26: 6,400
  • Rep. Michael Cloud (R) TX-27: 4,300
  • Rep. John R. Carter (R) TX-31: 4,600
  • Rep. Brian Babin (R) TX-36: 8,300


  • Rep. Rob Bishop (R) UT-01: 2,800
  • Rep. Chris Stewart (R) UT-02:  5,900
  • Rep. John R. Curtis (R) UT-03: 4,500


  • Rep. Robert J. Wittman (R) VA-01: 7,300
  • Rep. Denver Riggleman (R) VA-05: 2,200
  • Rep. Ben Cline (R) VA-06: 2,700
  • Rep. H. Morgan Griffith (R) VA-09: 1,500


  • Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler (R) WA-03: 3,300
  • Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R) WA-05: 3,100

West Virginia

  • Rep. David B. McKinley (R) WV-01: 600
  • Rep. Alexander X. Mooney (R) WV-02: 700
  • Rep. Carol D. Miller (R) WV-03: N/A


  • Rep. Bryan Steil (R) WI-01: 2,400
  • Rep. F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. (R) WI-05: 1,300
  • Rep. Glenn Grothman (R) WI-06: 1,400
  • Rep. Sean P. Duffy (R) WI-07: 500
  • Rep. Mike Gallagher (R) WI-08: 2,000


  • Rep. Liz Cheney (R) WY-At Large: 800

Throughout debate on the bill, Republicans consistently reiterated that the bill had “no chance” of passing in the Senate because it included no funding for the border and allegedly allows the United States to provide “green cards to gang members.”


“If you actually care about the people at the border right now, if you actually care, why wouldn’t we fund beds right now?” Rep. Chip Roy (R-TX) interrogated.

Rep. Paul Gosar (R-AZ) even went as far to say that it “invites anarchy” and “encourages caravans.”

The Dream and Promise Act, however, is not about the border. It is about addressing the millions of immigrants who are in every way American except on paper. It is a way for the United States to fulfill its promise of being a country where anyone can achieve the American dream without fear of deportation.

To the GOP talking point about the bill rewarding criminals with green cards, it has strict eligibility provisions to ensure that anyone deemed a national security threat would not be eligible for protections.

“I may be new to Washington, but apparently I’ve learned something that the other side of the aisle has not, which is how to read a bill,” Rep. Joe Neguse (D-CO), himself a son of African refugees, said before the vote. “Because if you go to page 12, line 21, of this bill, you will learn that gang members are not eligible under H.R. 6.”

In spite of this, Republicans continued to fearmonger. Before the final vote, party leaders introduced an amendment that would allow the federal government to access the applications of immigrants who were denied on the basis of criminal activity, national security, or gang membership so that they could be referred to the Department of Homeland Security for deportation. Democrats, as well as other criminal justice experts, have argued that the use of gang databases is flawed and puts the innocent at risk.


Republicans in the Senate are likely to repeat the same rhetoric of their counterparts in the Senate. They seem more concerned with funding immigration enforcement agencies than providing opportunities for law-abiding, tax-paying immigrants who live their lives in constant limbo.